Herbarium is a botanical collection of dried flowers and herbs. The Latin name herbarium is translated as "herbalist". The collection may include not only herbal, but also woody samples.
It will be interesting for both adults and children to get acquainted with the kingdom of plants, compete in observation, collect and decorate the herbarium.
Collection and design herbarium do it yourself
How to make a herbarium with your own hands? It is necessary to study the sequence of actions and observe it exactly. The herbarization algorithm was developed by Karl Linney in the 18th century. Since then, the rules of collection, drying and storage have not changed.
To work will require:
- herbarium folder;
- parchment or any other paper that absorbs moisture;
- scissors for cutting plants, shovel;
- herbaric press.
How to collect plants for herbar?
It should be clarified which plant species in your geographic region are rare and protected. Collecting herbarium for personal needs from protected samples should not be.
Collect the plants better in dry weather. For morphological sorting, specimens are dug together with the roots. Samples choose healthy and whole. Too thick roots and stems, inconvenient for drying, cut along.
From the shrubs and trees cut off shoots with buds and greens. If the plant had to dig, it is cleaned from residues of the soil.
How to dry the collected samples?
To dry the plants properly, use a special device called a herbaric press. It consists of two planks, at the edges of which there are holes for the harnesses. Prepared samples are placed in large quantities between the plates, which are tied down with bundles. In one herbaric press fits about 50 inserts with samples. The result is a semblance of a thick, bandaged book. The leaflet (also called the jacket), in which the plant is laid, along with the label, is placed in a press, making paper sheets on both sides.
Too succulent plants are dried, pre-scalded with boiling water. In the afternoon, the herbarium press is being taken out to dry in the sun. At night - return to the premises. Sheets, which are laid liners with plants, it is recommended to replace dry at least once a day. How to determine that the plant is already dry? Leaves and flowers should be fragile in appearance and not sag in an upright position.
To get a herbarium of mosses or lichens, the sample is dried outdoors in a cardboard box.
According to the rules of herbarization, the folder is placed on a horizontal surface, then the plant is placed in it, trying to preserve its natural form. Extra leaves that interfere with the tab can be carefully removed, but the stalks should be left in place of the removed leaves. A number of leaves and flowers are turned downside to the observer.
Dried herbarium is made in a special cardboard folder. On one page you can place several plants of different shapes and sizes.
The herbarium of plants is stored for years, if all the conditions are met - for centuries. Dried flowers and plants will last longer in a dry ventilated area. Cabinets that store sample folders should be hygroscopic. To prevent insects in the herbarium, it is treated with insecticides.
We attach children
Children will certainly be interested in what you do with herbs and flowers. Taking a herbarium will help the child learn more about the types of plants he sees while walking.
It will be interesting to kids to make out dried flowers by means of painting paper. Suitable grass with fine veins and details. That the thin painting paper did not crease, it is placed on a dense cardboard. The child puts the dried leaf on the ink paper, covers it with glass and brings it to the sun. After a few minutes, the printed imprint of the plant will be clearly visible on the blue sheet.
You can offer your child to make an unusual herbarium: the imprint of a plant on salt dough or clay for modeling.
Compositions of dried flowers in the interior
A beautiful herbarium on a wall in a frame or a vase is able to completely transform the hearth. The herbarium will fit into any interior. A room in the style of strict minimalism will decorate the paintings with "prototypes" taken from the botanical collection.
On the walls of the nursery will delight the child pictures in wooden frames with children's applications. For the kitchen fit dry composition, composed of spices or spikes. In the living room you can put dried gifts of autumn. Delicate bouquets of green ears in decorative vases, romantic and sensual flowers under glass complement the bedroom interior.
Lamps made with their own hands, glue the paper with colored herbarium. Interesting dried flower arrangements in glass bowls and candlesticks.
Herbarium of leaves
Herbarium of the leaves is obtained by drying the shoots with leaves in the open air. When the deciduous herbarium dries well, it can be covered with glass and framed frame. The paper on which the foliar herbar is glued should be of medium density.
Herbarium of flowers
Herbarium of flowers dried in the open air. A neatly shaped bundle is tied up with a thread or wire, suspended or placed in a dry low vase. Wheat spikelets and poppy heads are shaped upright.
Flower arrangers know how to make a herbarium of flowers using a set of simple tools. Before proceeding to the compilation of a flower arrangement, a novice florist-arranger will need:
- lightweight porous base on which the composition will be formed (floristic sponge, wet sand, placed in a plastic bag and tucked into a vessel);
- metal tattoos for fixing dried flowers on the base;
- bamboo or straw twigs of various lengths for the stability of the composition;
- brown or green colored paper;
- transparent adhesive tape;
- glue, scissors.
When composing a composition, one should be aware of color combinations: dry flowers in one bouquet should not be too contrasted. Paint is better to choose not bright, but muted tones. Accessories such as ribbons, bows and lacing should not be distracting attention. Bind and decorate the composition of dried flowers need cotton or linen ribbons.
Sometimes dry compositions are placed in openwork trowels. The shape and size of the vase or podbuketnika selected on the basis of the dimensions of the composition. For dry bouquets suitable decorative vases made of clay and wood.